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Meat temperatures, cooking temperatures and meat safety

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mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

I had left a post someplace, and can't find it. So I will start a fresh one. Maybe someone would consider it a sticky as this is very important.

One of the biggest factors in foodborne-illness outbreaks is time-temperature abuse. Disease-causing bacteria microorganisms grow and multiply at temperatures between 41 degrees F and 135 degrees F. Whenever food is held in the temperature danger range, it is being abused.

Common opportunities for time-temperature abuse throughout the flow of food include:
-- Not cooking food to its required minimum internal temperature
-- Not cooling food properly
-- Failing to reheat food to 165 degrees F for fifteen seconds within two hours
-- Failing to hold food at a minimum internal temperature of 135 defrees F or higher or 41 degrees F or lower

I have more on specific temps for different meats and will make more posts to this one. I want to keep them short so as to not loose interest.

Please bare with me as there will be several.

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:02 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Ground Meats -- including: beef, pork, and other meat or fish.

Minimum internal temperature 155 degrees F for 15 seconds.

Most whole-muscle cuts of meat are likely to have microorganisms only on their surface. When meat is ground, microorganisms on the surface are mixed throughout the product.

Ground meat may also be cooked to the following alternative internal temperatures:
-- 145 degrees F for 3 minutes
-- 150 degrees F for 1 minute
-- 155 degrees F for 15 seconds
-- 158 degrees F for <1 second

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:04 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Injected Meats -- including brined ham and flavor-injected roasts

155 degrees F for 15 seconds

When meats are injected, foodborne microorganisms on the surface can be carried into the interior.
Injected meats may also be cooked to the following alternative internal temperatures:

-- 145 degrees F for 3 minutes
-- 150 degrees F for 1 minute
-- 155 degrees F for 15 seconds
-- 158 degrees F <1 second

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:09 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Pork, Beef, Veal, Lamb

steaks/chops 145 degrees for 15 seconds

roasts 145 degrees for 4 minutes

This temperature is high enough to destroy Trichinella spp. larvae that might have contaminated pork.

Depending on the type of roast and the oven used, roasts may be cookd to the following alternative internal temperatures.

-- 130 degrees F for 112 minutes
-- 131 degrees F for 89 minutes
-- 133 degrees F for 56 minutes
-- 135 degrees F for 36 minutes
-- 136 degrees F for 28 minutes
-- 138 degrees F for 18 minutes
-- 140 degrees F for 12 minutes
-- 142 degrees F for 8 minutes
-- 144 degrees F for 5 minutes
-- 144 degrees F for 4 minutes

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:10 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Fish
145 degrees F for 15 seconds

stuffed fish (or stuffing containing fish)
165 degrees F for 15 seconds

Ground, chopped, or minced fish
155 degrees F for 15 seconds

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:12 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Fruit or Vegetables that will be hot-held for service
135 degrees F for 15 seconds

Cooked vegetables must never be held at room temperatures

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:14 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Commercially processed, Ready to eat food that will be hot-held for service

135 degrees F for 15 seconds

This includes items such as: cheese sticks, deep-fried vegetables, chicken wings, etc.

Leatherneck well done
well done

Posts: 898
Location: Florida
mrgrumpy wrote:
-- Failing to reheat food to 165 degrees F for fifteen seconds within two hours


:? :?:
Image

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:18 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Another point of interest:

Cross contamination of food.

If you don't do this, please consider it. When you prepare food, do you use the same cutting board and utensils for all your food? If so, STOP.

Use different cutting boards and utensils for each type of food. Example: one for poultry, a second for other meats, and a third for vegetables. Consider different colored boards and handles. If you don't, make sure you sanitize all your items before going to another type of food.

And don't forget to wash and dry your hands as well.
:)

Post Mon Nov 07, 2005 9:26 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

mrgrumpy wrote:

-- Failing to reheat food to 165 degrees F for fifteen seconds within two hours


Leatherneck, my wife explained it to me, the item in question, has to be held at a minimum temp of 140 degrees F. If it falls below that, it has to be reheated to 165 degrees F for 15 seconds (minimum) within the 2 hours.

I should have mentioned that she works for the school system cafeteria and had to attend a very intense training class this year. These are safey guidlines for serving food, but it is also great guidelines to use when cooking food for home use as well. As we all want to make safe food for everyone to enjoy.

Post Tue Nov 08, 2005 11:57 am
Ugly John well done
well done

Posts: 360
Location: Green Cove Springs, Florida
Thanks for the great info. I got a warmer rack for foil pans to set pulled pork out in, so it stays hot. I have an Christmas party next month that will have quite a bit of it out.

Our cutting boards are all plastic. Whenever I use them for meat, they go in the dishwasher to be sanitized. I also throw the knives in. The wife is always worried about dulling them, but hey - I'm the one who sharpens them!
***************

When I die, I don't want a funeral - I want a barbecue!

Post Tue Nov 08, 2005 6:08 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Recommended requirements for storing food:

Meat: -- store fresh at an internal temperature of 41 degrees F or lower

Poultry -- Store fresh at an internal temperature of 41 degrees F or lower

Fish -- Store fresh at an internal temperature of 41 degrees F or lower

Shellfish -- Store alive at an internal temperature of 45 degrees F or lower

Eggs -- Store fresh at an internal temperature of 45 degrees F or lower

Dairy -- Store fresh at an internal temperature of 41 degrees F or lower

Ice Cream and Frozen Yogurt -- Store frozen at a temperature of 6 degrees F to 10 degrees F

Post Tue Nov 08, 2005 6:10 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

To hold food at a specific internal temperature, refrigerator air temperature should be at least 2 degrees F lower than the desired temperature.


Keep freezer temperature at 0 degrees F or lower unless the food you are storing requires a different temperature.

Post Tue Nov 08, 2005 6:12 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Use caution when placing food into a freezer. Warm food can raise the temperature inside the unit and partially thaw the food inside. Store food to allow good air circulation. Overloading a freezer makes it work harder, and make it harder to find and rotate food properly.

Post Tue Nov 08, 2005 6:14 pm
mrgrumpy well done
well done

Posts: 1846
Location: North Carolina

Use open shelving.

Lining shelves with aluminum foil or paper restricts circulation of cold air in the unit.

Never place hot food in the refrigerator. This can warm the interior enough to put other food in the temperature danger zone.

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